In light of the restoration of full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba, it might be beneficial to review salient documents that inform the past; these are volumes from the Foreign Relations of the United States series specifically devoted to Cuba: Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958–1960, Cuba, Volume VI; Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961–1963, Volume X, Cuba, January 1961–September 1962; Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961–1963, American Republics; Cuba 1961–1962; Cuban Missile Crisis and Aftermath, Volumes X/XI/XII, Microfiche Supplement; Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961–1963, Volume XI, Cuban Missile Crisis and Aftermath; and Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964–1968, Volume XXXII, Dominican Republic; Cuba; Haiti; Guyana. Other mentions of Cuba in FRUS series can be found here. This recent CRS report – Cuba: Issues for the 114th Congress is of value.
Archive for Foreign Relations
Within the past hour, President Obama has announced that the United States will start lifting decades-old sanctions against Cuba with the ultimate goal of restoring full diplomatic relations. Read the White House Fact Sheet: Charting a new course on Cuba as well as this informative New York Times article and this Times Topics section on Cuba. In addition, relevant documents concerning our turbulent relations with this island nation are available online. This Department of State page on Cuba provides additional links and more worthwhile information is found in this CRS report Cuba: Policies and Issues for the 113th Congress.
In 1961, practically overnight, the western portion of Berlin was encircled by a wall surmounted with barbed wire, ditches and watch towers. For years it was the symbol of the tension between the West and the East (Russia). And as quickly as it was erected, it came down on November 9, 1989. A City Torn Apart: The Building of the Berlin Wall provides an informative overview through essays, maps, and selected documents. Hundreds of declassified CIA documents from the early 1960s are available online as are numerous diplomatic texts found in:
|Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958–1960, Berlin Crisis, 1958–1959, Volume VIII|
|Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958–1960, Berlin Crisis, 1959–1960, Germany, Austria, Volume IX|
|Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961–1963, Volume XIV, Berlin Crisis, 1961–1962|
|Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961–1963, Volume XV, Berlin Crisis, 1962–1963. The fall of the wall has been chronicled widely: The Wall (PBS); On This Day: The Wall Comes Down (BBC); Fall of the Berlin Wall (numerous videos, C-SPAN); The Berlin Wall (with numerous links, Times Topics); The Fall of the Berlin Wall (The Washington Post); The Berlin Wall, 25 Years After the Wall (photoessay, The Atlantic); The Berlin Wall (The Guardian); and Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall (Wilson Center). ‘”There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!” – Ronald Reagan, Speech at the Brandenburg Gate, West Berlin, June 12, 1987|
Where can you find reliable and accurate information in this digital world? A good jumping off place is the Library of Congress, the world’s largest library. This library contains literally millions of books, among other items, from around the world. What is of interest is that the Library houses online the Country Studies series of monographs written for the U.S. Army between 1988 and 1998. Altogether, just over 100 volumes were published. Each volume is arranged along similar lines: an introduction followed by chapters on history, geography/population, economy, government and politics, and national security. The volumes end with statistical tables and a bibliography. In these pages, religion and the society are discussed, allowing the student to gain insight into the country’s culture. In certain cases, these books, having been published between 1988 and 1998, have had updates added.
An additional way of getting current information on countries is to access Country Fact Sheets, an irregular publication issued by the U.S. State Department. While they concentrate on relations with the U.S., many helpful links are supplied to round out the country’s profile.
Great statistical information on every country of the world (and some entities which are not countries), can be gleaned by the heavily-referenced CIA World Factbook. This treasure trove is a goldmine of information on every aspect of a country, ranging from the number of internet users to the miles of paved road a country contains. The CIA keeps this work as updated as possible, adding/revising information every two weeks. In fact, the web site will inform you as to what statistics have been upgraded so the student will know how timely the data is. A highly recommended site.
Google News is a great way to keep abreast of current information in foreign countries of interest. For those who would like a little more focus than Google, the BBC Country Profiles is a reliable and current site for a great deal of information, including the main media outlets for each country. The Guardian newspaper provides current articles pertaining to every country in the world.
Country information from a business perspective also has value for a student because many of these sources provide cultural as well as economic information. One of the best places to go for business information on foreign countries is the Country Commercial Guide. Published on an annual basis by the commercial section of the U.S. consulate in each country, these guides are the cornerstone for doing research on a country’s business prospects’ Another reliable tool is from the UK Trade & Investment section – Country Profiles. And do not forget the Doing Business series. This annual report from the World Bank details the ease or difficulty as to setting up a commercial enterprise in any country in the world. The World Bank also provides Key Development Data and Statistics. There is also a Countries and Regions page where a student will find additional World Bank information.
For a country’s culture, please consult the following:
Country Profiles – Global Guide to Culture, Customs and Etiquette. A site full of valuable information along with numerous articles on this topic. A very worthwhile site and one used by the British government.
Cultural Profiles Project. While this site is a Canadian site addressing the cultural background of recent immigrants, what the site actually does is provide a great deal of information on the countries from which these immigrants left. Everything from medical beliefs to family structure is found here. It is a quite extensive site, and one which should be consulted.
Culture Crossing. This site provides current, vetted information on such cultural items as taboos, greetings, gender issues, views of time, eye contact, etc. For those who have never been to some of these countries, these cultural insights might prove eye-opening
The U.S. Department of State has issued its Country Reports of Human Rights Practices for 2012, the latest annual version of this ongoing publication. The information is available in individual country or regional reports, or filtered by specific themes. or accessed by previous volumes. In addition, a few 2011 country reports have been translated into the national language. A global overview and selected relevant documents are also offered. For example, you can read about the terrible conditions in Syria, how the new state of South Sudan is attempting to protect human rights, or the current state of human rights in Brazil. Each country is profiled with a multitude of factors, among them freedom of internet access, human trafficking, and corruption and lack of transparency in goverment. The United Nations maintains a Human Rights section replete with reports and deliberations; Human Rights Watch has country reports; and Amnesty International has been at the forefront of the human rights movement for years. Its country reports and regional reports are of great value.
One of the reasons definitive information on Chechnya is so elusive is that it is not an independent country so it does not show up in national/international datasets or reports. And being a federal republic of Russia does not make for transparency either. However, reliable and valid information is out there; to wit: Chechnya Profile (a very good overview along with a timeline, BBC News); In Depth: Inside the Chechen Conflict (another good site from the BBC); The Diversity of the Chechen Culture (UNESCO); Chechens( from Countries and Their Cultures, slow to load but worth the wait); Times Topics: Chechnya (The New York Times); Chechnya and the North Caucasus (Lords Library Note – UK Parliament); Backgrounder: Chechen Terrorism (and more reports from the Council on Foreign Relations); Chechnya (Center for Strategic and International Studies); Chechnya (Strategic Studies Institute); The North Caucasus: Islam, Security and Politics (Chatham House, N.B. Chechnya is in the North Caucasus); Stability in Russia’s Chechnya and Other Regions of the North Caucasus: Recent Developments (CRS); and The War in Chechnya: Russia’s Coduct, the Humanitarian Crisis, and United States Policy and Chechnya: Implications for Russia and the North Caucasus (both hearings from the Senate Foreign Relations Committee).
The United States completed troop withdrawal in December 2011 (full timeline here). This final report from the Special Inspector General for Iraqi Reconstruction not only reviews the efforts to rebuild Iraq and its infrastratcure but also highlights the effects through interviews with Iraqi leaders, senior U.S. officials, and members of Congress. Entitled Learning from Iraq, the report provides some remarkably candid evaluations of failures on the part of the United States. A remark that could be classified as typical throughout this document was that of James Jeffrey, Ambassador to Iraq from 2010 to 2012: “too much money was spent with too few results.” He did acknowledge that positive results did come out of the reconstruction efforts but opined that the U.S. didn’t realize the complexity of resurrecting the Iraqi government; that the U.S. did not know if it was running a counter-insurgency operation or was engaged in nation-building; and that “goofy” contracting rules vitiated many of the programs. (29) A valuable learning document for future applications.